Childbirth is the beginning of a new life when one or more newborn babies exits the womb by means of normal birth, by a C-section, or by caesarean section, in which one baby is delivered through the abdomen by cutting the umbilical cord. In comparison to the adult population, the total number of babies born every year is relatively low, with approximately five percent of births being described as "normal." This means that there are approximately two to three million "abnormal" births each year. About twenty percent of all births are described as "prolonged"special." There are also many miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies, and other complications during pregnancy and birth, which make up the "unplanned" births.
When childbirth occurs under conditions that are considered too complicated by the mother or her doctors, some of the complications could include:
- Caesarean Section. A C-section is usually recommended for mothers who have problems with either premature labour or having an abnormally high birth weight. When a woman has an abnormally high birth weight, this could result in complications during birth and after delivery. If a woman is at risk of having complications during labour and delivery due to preterm labour or obesity, her doctor may recommend she take pre-natal care to prevent these complications. The doctor will advise the mother of risks and ways to manage them before childbirth and may even recommend her taking an exercise class, watching her diet, or having prenatal checkups. After childbirth, the doctor may refer the mother to a cardiologist for further assessment and treatment.
- Complications During Labor and Delivery. Complications during labor and birth are usually caused by excessive force during labour by the delivery team (in which case the doctor administering the C-section may suggest you have your baby delivered by C-section), infection or inflammation of the cervix, or difficulty or pain during labour or delivery due to the use of anesthesia. In addition, a Cesarean delivery can cause a prolonged stay in the hospital, the need to undergo surgery, and/or the risk of infection to the infant during the recovery period. Complications during labour and birth that could affect the health of the infant's mother include the following:
- Infection of the Child. An infection of the child's mouth or the umbilicus can occur if a person does not clean their mouth after eating or spitting up during labour. This infection can cause a condition called oral thrush, which occurs when the child develops white patches and sores that bleed. If the baby has had preterm labour or had a large amount of amniotic fluid at the time of birth, then the baby can be infected. This condition is called sepsis and the baby is likely to be infected throughout its life if it is left untreated. Infection of the child is also possible during labour if the mother did not clean the baby's mouth after eating, if a nurse or other caregiver touched the child after delivery, or if the mother has taken antibiotics or steroids during pregnancy.
- Miscarriage. Miscarriage, also called a spontaneous abortion, occurs when the child fails to complete its development. A miscarriage can be a difficult, emotional time in a family for the mother. The miscarriage can be the outcome of complications during labour and birth and can affect the quality of life of the child. It can also be emotionally difficult for the father and the whole family as the loss of the baby will most likely leave them devastated.